KONSEP DASAR STERILISASI DAN DESINFEKSI PDF

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Biosecurity Sidat

Wadah sterilisaai ini merupakan integrasi dari Organisasi Siswa Intra Sekolah OSIS yang independen dan mempunyai domain pada pembentukan rohani, kejiwaan dan mentalitas dari para siswa. Diibawah ini sebagai bahan inspirasi, spirit, dan trigger bagi siswa khususnya pengurus SKI Al Kindi. Syrian postage stamp depicting al-Kindi.

Al-Kindi was a descendant of the Kinda tribe. He was born and educated in Kufabefore pursuing further studies in Baghdad. Al-Kindi became a prominent dam in the House of Wisdomand a number of Abbasid Caliphs appointed him to oversee the translation of Greek scientific dsinfeksi philosophical texts into the Arabic language. In mathematics, al-Kindi played an important role in introducing Indian numerals to the Islamic and Christian world.

Many of his works deal with subjects that concerned theology, including the nature of God, the souland prophetic knowledge.

Al-Kindi was born in KufaIraq to an aristocratic Kindah family, which had migrated there from Yemen. His full name was, in transliteration: His father was the governor of Kufa, and al-Kindi received his preliminary education there. He was well known for his beautiful calligraphyand at one point was employed as a calligrapher by al-Mutawakkil.

There are various theories why this happened: This may have occurred for a number of reasons. Aside from the militant orthodoxy of al-Mutawakkil, the Mongols destroyed countless libraries during their invasion. However, the most probable cause was that his writings never found popularity among influential philosophers such as al-Farabi and Avicennawho ultimately overshadowed him. Al-Kindi was a master of many different areas of thought.

Although he would eventually be eclipsed by names such as al-Farabi and Avicennahe was held to be one of the greatest Islamic philosophers of his time. The historian Ibn al-Nadim d. The best man of his time, unique in his knowledge of all the ancient sciences.

He is called the Philosopher of the Arabs. His books deal with different sciences, such as logic, philosophy, geometry, arithmetic, astronomy etc. We have connected him with the natural philosophers because of his prominence in Science. The Italian Renaissance scholar Geralomo Cardano — considered him one of the twelve greatest minds of the Middle Ages. Although most of his books have been lost over the centuries, a few have survived in the form of Latin translations by Gerard of Cremonaand others have been rediscovered in Arabic manuscripts; most importantly, twenty-four of his lost works were located in the mid-twentieth century in a Turkish library.

In one of his treatises on the subject, he says that these bodies are rational entities, whose circular motion is in obedience to and worship of God. Their role, al-Kindi believes, is to act as instruments for divine providence. He furnishes empirical evidence as proof for this assertion: Al-Kindi discussed the process by which the heavenly bodies affect the material world. One theory he posits in his works is from Aristotle, who conceived that the movement of these bodies causes friction in the sub-lunar regionwhich stirs up the primary elements of earth, fire, air and water, and these combine to produce everything in the material world.

An alternative view found in his treatise On Rays is that the planets exercise their influence in straight lines.

In each of these, he presents two fundamentally different views of physical interaction; action by contact and action at a distance. This dichotomy is duplicated in his writings on optics. In cosmologyal-Kindi maintained the traditional Aristotelian view of gravity according to which heavy bodies, such as the Earthmove downward toward the centre and light bodies, such as Firemove upward away from the centre.

As an advanced chemistal-Kindi was the first to oppose the practice of alchemy ; he debunked the myth that simple, base metals could be transformed into precious metals such as gold or silver. Building on the work of Jabir ibn Hayyan Geberthe isolation of ethanol alcohol as a relatively pure compound was first achieved by al-Kindi. He was the first to unambiguously describe the production of pure distilled alcohol from the distillation of wine.

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Al-Kindi invented a wide variety of scent and perfume products, and is considered the father of the perfume industry. He carried out extensive research and experiments in combining various plants and other sources to produce a variety of scent products. He elaborated a vast number of recipes for a wide range of perfumes, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. The writer goes on in the same section to speak of the preparation of a perfume called ghaliyawhich contained muskamber and other ingredients, and reveals a long list of technical names of drugs and apparatus.

He also provided the earliest recipe for the production of camphor. Al-Kindi was a pioneer in cryptographyespecially cryptanalysis. He gave the first known recorded explanation of cryptanalysis in A Manuscript on Deciphering Cryptographic Messages. In particular, he is credited with developing the frequency analysis method whereby variations in the frequency of the occurrence of letters could be analyzed and exploited to break dasaf i.

This book apparently antedates other cryptology references by several centuries, and it also predates writings on probability and statistics by Pascal and Fermat by nearly eight centuries. Al-Kindi authored works on a number of other important mathematical subjectsincluding arithmetic, geometry, the Indian numbers, the harmony of numbers, lines and multiplication with numbers, relative quantities, measuring proportion and time, and numerical procedures and cancellation.

In geometry, among other works, he wrote on the theory of parallels. Also related to geometry were two works on optics. One of the ways in which he made use of mathematics as a philosopher was to attempt to disprove the eternity of the world by demonstrating that actual infinity is a mathematical and logical absurdity.

The earliest known work concerned with environmentalism and pollution was an Arabic medical treatise written by al-Kindi. One can also observe by the senses… how in consequence of extreme cold air changes into water. To do this, one takes a glass bottle, fills it completely with snow, and closes its end carefully. Then one determines its weight by weighing. One places it in a container… which has previously been weighed. On the surface of the bottle the air changes into water, and appears upon it like the drops on large porous pitchers, so that a considerable amount of water gradually collects inside the container.

One then weighs the bottle, the water and the container, and finds their weight greater than previously, which proves the change. There is no process by which water or snow can be made to pass through glass. There are more than thirty treatises attributed to al-Kindi in the field of medicinein which tserilisasi was partly influenced by the ideas of Galen[31] and partly by his own personal dab and other Muslim physicians in his time.

In his Treatise on Diseases Caused by Phlegmhe provided the first scientific explanation and treatment for epilepsy: When the phlegm melts and changes to a bad konsfp quality, it goes forth and ascends to the brain from a certain direction, then it sinks down through the principal veins towards the heart, and by its irritant quality it deranges the place of sense, thought and recollection in the brain. It passes through the veins towards the heart, and if the natural heat whose source is the heart is strong enough to dissolve it, it does so, and what happens as a consequence is epilepsy sar.

For the parts of the brain which we have mentioned, becoming injured, are overcome and cease to function. When it prevails over it, it attacks and dissolves it.

When this occurs, his recovery is near. In his Aqrabadhin Medical Formularyhe describes many pharmaceutical preparations, including simple drugs derived mostly from botanical sources as well as animal and mineral sources.

Al-Kindi was the first great theoretician of music in the Arab-Islamic world. He surpassed the achievement of the Greek musicians in using the alphabetical annotation for one eighth. He published fifteen treatises on music theorybut only five have survived. In one of his treaties the word musiqia was used for the first dewinfeksi in Arabic, which today means music in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, English and several other languages in the Islamic world.

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His greatest contribution to the development of early Islamic philosophy was his efforts to make Greek and Hellenistic thought both accessible and acceptable to a Muslim audience. Al-Kindi carried out this mission from the House of Wisdoman institute of translation and learning patronized by the Abbasid Caliphs, in Baghdad. Despite this, he did make clear that desjnfeksi believed revelation was a superior source of knowledge to reason because it guaranteed matters of faith that reason could not uncover.

While his philosophical approach was not always original, and was even considered clumsy by later thinkers, he successfully incorporated Aristotelian and neo-Platonist thought into an Islamic philosophical framework. This was an important factor in the dessinfeksi and popularization Greek philosophy in the Muslim intellectual world. Most early writers on logic in Islamic philosophy during the 8th and 9th centuries produced commentaries on Aristotelian logic. The first original Arabic writings on logic were produced by al-Kindi, who produced a summary on earlier logic up to his time.

Al-Kindi made important contributions to the philosophy of science and the development of scientific methodology. Like his Arab predecessor Geberal-Kindi placed a strong emphasis on experimentationand in addition, he introduced a new emphasis on quantification. He also wrote the following on his view of scientific knowledge: We must not hesitate to recognize the truth and to accept it no matter what is its origin, no matter if it comes to us from the ancients or from foreign people… My purpose is first to write down all that the ancients have left sterikisasi on a given topic and then, using the Arabic tongue and taking into account the customs of our time and our capacities, to complete what they have not fully expressed.

Though al-Kindi held ancient authorities such as Aristotle in high regard, he often criticized them for making claims regarding natural philosophy without providing any dwsar proof, nor any empirical evidence or scientific demonstration.

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In many instances, al-Kindi used experiments and quantitative methods to verify many of his own theories, as he recognized the importance of direct observation and empiricism as a source of scientific knowledge. He also often invented specific laboratory apparatus in order to carry out his experiments. Two major theories of optics oknsep in the writings of al-Kindi; Aristotelian and Euclidian. Aristotle had believed that in order for the eye to perceive an object, both the eye and the object must be in contact with a transparent medium such as air that is filled with light.

The kpnsep which al-Kindi relied upon to determine which of these theories was most correct was how adequately each one explained the experience of seeing. For example, why a circle viewed from the side will appear as a line. According to Aristotle, the complete sensible form of a circle should be transmitted to the eye and it should appear as a circle.

For this reason, al-Kindi considered the latter preponderant. We, on the other hand, have described this with as much evidence as our ability permits, furnishing what was missing, for he has not mentioned a definite distance. As an Islamic psychologistal-Kindi was a pioneer in experimental psychology. He was the first to use the method of sterjlisasi in psychologywhich led to his discovery that sensation is proportionate to the stimulus.

He also dealt with psychology in several other treatises: In it we should treasure our precious and cherished gains where they can never be dispossessed…for that which is owned by our senses could easily be taken away from us. While Muslim intellectuals were already acquainted with Greek philosophy especially logical-Kindi is credited with being the first real Muslim philosopher.

This trend is most obvious in areas such as metaphysics and the nature of God as a causal entity. However, such agreements are now considered incidental, as further study has shown that they disagreed on a number of equally important topics.

According to al-Kindi, the goal of metaphysics is the knowledge of God.